The Cebuano Bugalbugal
Bugalbugal, defined in this paper as a verbal event that makes use of playfully derisive language, is examined, interpreted, defined, and given discursive order based on data from dictionaries and fieldwork. Using the Communication Theory on Language by Roman Jakobson to structure the analysis of data gathered from interviewees, this research offers preliminary knowledge on bugalbugal, putting forward its five core elements: it is a social transaction and a cultural practice; it has cultural and historical specificity; it has norms on power and behavior as well as on language; it has laughter and ridicule; and, it has ritualistic qualities.
Kaloka, Keri, Bongga: Pakahulugan at Pahiwatig ng Gay Language sa mga Piling Pelikula ni Vice Ganda
Using the framework of Pragmatics and Grice’s (2012) cooperative principle and conversational maxims, this paper dissects the gay language’s contextual meanings, and effects on narrative and characterization as used in Vice Ganda’s selected hit films. This paper also scrutinizes the socio-cultural-political implications of the use of gay language as manifested in the role and image of the gay-language-speaking characters and how these might actually reflect empowerment and/or oppression of gays in a heteronormative society. Analyses indicate that while the use of gay language may not be indicative of gays’ social class or status, it reflects the experience, culture and discipline in which the gay takes part. Further, while Vice Ganda’s brand of humor and personality are still apparent and that gay language was used to induce laughter, it cannot be denied that, amidst society’s minoritization of gays, there are deeper underlying meanings and significance for such use of gay language.