Gender representation in Cambodian television advertisements

This study analyzes 157 unduplicated Cambodian television advertisements for differences in gender representation. The findings indicate gender differences for several variables, including the degree of dress (more men than women were fully dressed and more women than men were suggestively dressed), the setting (more women than men were at home and more men than women were in the workplace), voiceovers (male voiceovers clearly outnumbered female ones), and product categories (women were featured in advertisements for body care/toiletries/cosmetics/beauty products, and men were in advertisements for alcoholic drinks and automotive/vehicles/transportation/accessories products). Most of these gender differences were expected in the patriarchal society of Cambodia, where there are traditionally strict codes of conduct for men and women. However, some results (equal numerical representation, age) ran counter to most previous research. The potential effects of such representations on audiences are discussed based on social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.